Portable Document Format (PDF) provides a richer environment than other text formats and also allows materials to be printed exactly as the author(s) intended, including much of the supplementary information such as; drawings, 3D, maps, full-colour graphics, photos, tables, charts etc.

The PDF file can be easily downloaded to your computer, enabling you to view it offline at your convenience. Documents published in PDF format are typically much larger than simple text files. If you are connected via a dial up connection or if your bandwidth is severely restricted you should consider the likely download time before attempting to retrieve such documents. In order to help you decide, we give the size of the PDF file alongside its description.

Letters to Journals, Research Articles and other editorial content are available to registered subscribers or institutional site license users as either Full Text (HTML) or as a PDF.


Downloading PDF files
In order to view PDF files, or save them for later use, please follow these simple steps:

1. Click on the PDF file link - your browser will automatically launch the Adobe Acrobat reader

2. Click the download icon - usually located in the top left or right corner of the screen dependent on which version you have installed

3. When you are done viewing the PDF file, click on your browser's Back button to return the web page that had the PDF link

Alternatively

1. Place the mouse cursor over a PDF file link, and then click your right mouse button. A small menu will appear

2. Select 'Save Link As' from the menu. A location box appears

3. Save the PDF file to a location you can remember. You can also save it is your Desktop

In order to download and view our PDF files, it is important that you use Adobe Acrobat’s version 8.0 or above.

The Adobe Acrobat plugin needed to view a PDF is free to download. Clicking or double-clicking on the Acrobat file after it is downloaded will start installation of both a reader and a plugin on your system. (The reader enables you to view the file; the plug-in launches the reader automatically from your browser).


Printing PDF Files

1. Open a PDF file in your browser.

2. In the browser, select File and Print. The PDF document should print exactly as it looks on the screen.


PDF problems
We perform thorough checks to ensure that our PDF files are posted correctly.

Please click the relevant link below to view Adobe's PDF troubleshooting tips:
Cannot View PDF in Browser
Error Message When Viewing PDF in Browser
Unable to Print PDF
Problems Downloading/Installing PDF Reader

Please note that the downloading of PDF files is restricted to those users who have either a full subscription or Pay Per View access to their chosen journal or article.


If you continue to experience problems with downloading PDF files, please contact our Customer Service team at customerservice@springernature.com. If you would rather call your local Customer Service team, their phone numbers are available here.