If you are using the ReadCube Web Reader to view the PDF - which includes articles shared through Springer Nature SharedIt links - please refer to this article on the ReadCube Knowledge Base for the latest information regarding supported web browsers.


If you are viewing the PDF directly from our site in a version of the Internet Explorer then there is a known issue with some versions. We advise you to upgrade to the latest version or change the following settings in Internet Explorer and Adobe Reader:


In Adobe Reader, choose Edit > Preferences, then select Internet in the list on the left. Deselect Display PDF in Browser, and click OK.


In IE, in the Security Settings dialog box, select Enable under Run ActiveX Controls And Plug-ins, and then click OK.


After making these changes, please clear your browsing history and then try again.


If the problem remains or if you are using another browser please contact our Customer Services team and provide the following details so they can assist:

  • The full title of the article including DOI reference if possible.
  • The browser you are using to view the file.
  • A description of the display problem you are experiencing with a screenshot if possible.


Please note that while our websites have been optimised to work well on most internet connections, some of the PDF files are very large and you may therefore experience a short delay, particularly if you are using a slower internet connection.